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心得技巧:结合真题实例谈职称英语单词的记忆

编辑: 路逍遥 关键词: 英语单词记忆 来源: 逍遥右脑记忆


  词汇选择是职称英语中第一个考试项目, 它考察应试者在一定语境下对单词或短语的理解。从表面上,这是词汇的考题,实际上这是一种最简单的阅读理解题。这里要给大家澄清一个概念,任何一种语言的语义最小单元是句子,而不是词。但是词汇或短语的理解对于句子的理解起着重要的作用。
  词汇不足的人在英文听、说、读、写各方面的能力都会受到严重限制。一般大多数人认为背单词既吃力,又成效不大。实际上,若能采用适当的方法,不仅可以缩短扩大词汇量所需的时间,并且能提高记忆单词的质量。下面在本课的第一部分向大家推荐六种单词记忆法,仅供参考。
  一、结合记忆法
  将比较生疏,不常用的单词放入一定的语言环境——句子中,结合句意来记忆单词。遇到此单词时,若词义忘记,则可通过回忆所在句子的意思来记忆单词。例如:
  slope
  n. ①倾斜;坡度;斜度
  There is always a certain slope in a ship's deck. 船的甲板总有几分倾斜。
  ②斜面;斜坡
  We climbed the steep slope of the hill. 我们爬了那座陡峭的斜坡。
  vi. 倾斜。
  The railroad slopes up slightly at this point. 铁路在此处有轻微的倾斜。
  critical
  adj. ①批评(性)的,吹毛求疵的
  I don't like people who are too critical about everything. 我不喜欢对每件事都太吹毛求疵的人。
  ②紧要的,关键的;危急的
  His condition is reported as being very critical. 据报告他的情况非常危急。
  通过此法来掌握词汇,既有助于记住单词本身的拼写、拼读,又可同时熟悉词的词义、词性、用法和搭配,比孤立地背记单词效果要好。
  二、同类记忆法
  将同类词汇收集在一起,同时背记。注意,同类词汇与同义词不同:同义词是指意思相同,而同类词是指基本属性相同、具体意义的层次,级别或范围不同的一类词汇。
  如headmaster和principal是同义词,都表示,“中小学校长”;president和chancellor是同义词,都表示大专院校“校长”。这两组词是同类词汇,都表示“校长”,但具体级别不同,所以两组词不是同义词。
  再如bachelor(学士)、master(硕士),doctor (博士)三个词都表示学位授予的情况,但具体级别不同,所以这三个词也是一组同类词汇。
  这样,将同类词汇放在一起记忆,当遇到其中一个词时,头脑中出现的就是一组词,效率大大提高了。
  三、比较记忆法
  把同义词或形似词放在一起,加以区别。记忆的过程是一组组,一对对单词同时记忆。职称英语中有很大一部分都是对同义词或近义词的考察,需要平时进行记忆和积累。
  例题1:The researchers have just completed a study of driving situations.(2004年职称英语卫生类C级)
  A. started
  B. finished
  C. changed
  D. made
  答案:B
  例题2:Michael is now merely a good friend.(2004年职称英语卫生类C级)
  A. largely
  B. possibly
  C. just
  D. rarely
  答案:C
  Merely/ only/ just
  四、构词法记忆法
  通过掌握构词法来记忆单词。英语主要有三种构词法:
  1)转化,即由一个词类转化为另一个词类。例如:
  picture (n)画-picture (v)描绘
  water (n)水-water (v)浇水
  例题1: He has trouble understanding that other people judge him by his social skills and conduct. (2003年职称英语卫生类C级)
  A. behavior
  B. style
  C. mode
  D. attitude
  答案:A
  解释:
  Conduct (v.)引导,管理,为人,传导
  Conduct (n.)操守,行为
  Conductor (n.)列车员,售票员,指挥者,导体等
  Semi-conductor 半导体
  例题2:The ice is not thick enough to bear the weight of a tank.(2004年职称英语卫生类C级)
  A. suffer
  B. accept
  C. receive
  D. endure
  答案:D
  解释:
  bear (n.)熊
  bear (v.)负担, 忍受, 带给, 具有, 挤
  2)派生,即通过加前缀或后缀构成另一个词,例如:
  happy→ unhappy(加前缀) happiness(加后缀)
  例题1: The workers in that factory manufacture furniture. (2003年职称英语卫生类C级)
  A. promote
  B. paint
  C. polish
  D. produce
  答案:D
  例题2: Even in a highly modernized country, manual work is a still needed. (2003年职称英语卫生类C级)
  A. mental
  B. physical
  C. natural
  D. hard
  答案:B
  man-, manu- =hand
  manage(管理), manual(体力的,手册), manuscript(手写稿), manufacture(生产), manumit(释放)
  例题3:About one million Americans are diagnosed,annually with skin cancer. (2004年职称英语卫生类C级)
  A. every year
  B. severely
  C. actively
  D. every month
  答案:A
  Ann= year
  Anniversaire (French)
  Anniversary, annals(编年史), annuity(年金)
  3)合成,即由两个或更多的词合成一个词。例如:
  wood(木)+cut(刻)→ woodcut(木刻)
  pea(豌豆)+nuts(坚果)→ peanut(花生)
  例题1: In the latter case the outcome can be serious indeed. (2003年职称英语卫生类C级)
  A. judgement
  B. result
  C. decision
  D. event
  答案:B  

      五、根义记忆法
  利用根义代替记忆多义,可以解决“没有生词”却老读不懂的问题。
  比如要问immediate(ly)是否已记住,回答当然是肯定的。那么就请看下面三个“没有生词”的片段:
  a) The woman walks immediately behind the car.
  b) She is my immediate neighbor.
  c) the immediate cause
  若没有读懂,那么就请看immediate(ly)根义
  中间没有间隔(地)
  1)(时间)立刻;
  2)(空间)紧挨,通接,紧跟,
  3)(关系)直接
  例题1:He will leave immediately. (2005职称英语用书)
  A. far away
  B. right away
  C. right here来源:www.examda.com
  D. soon
  答案:Bzcyy8.CoM
  例题2:Can you follow the plot? (2003年职称英语卫生类C级)
  A. change
  B. investigate
  C. understand
  D. write
  答案:C
  请看下面几句中的follow 分别都是什么意思?
  She went into the building, followed by a group of students.
  The teacher says that everybody should follow the rule here.
  I'm sorry, but I can't follow you.
  六、几组对容易混淆词进行特别记忆
  (1)有些字可当形容词又可当副词,例如: early; past; half; long; straight; fast; hard; quick; deep; slow; pretty; awful; wrong; right; high; late; hourly; early; weekly; etc.
  We had an early breakfast. (形容词)
  We went by a fast train. (形容词)
  We had breakfast early. (副词)
  Don't speak so fast.(副词)
  (2)有些形容词变为副词, 可在字尾加ly, 也可以不加, 不过在字义上不同。
  (A) easy “安适地”; easily “容易地”:
  Stand easy!
  He's not easily satisfied.
  (B) clear ( = completely “完全地”; clearly“显然地”;)
  The bullet went clear through the door.
  The thieves got clearly away.
  (C) high “高”; highly “很;非常”;
  The birds are flying high.
  He was highly praised for his work.
  (D) Slow 和 slowly当副词时同义, 但 slow比 slowly语气强.
  I told the driver to go slow(er).
  Drive slowly round these bends in the road.
  (E) hard “辛苦地”; hardly “几乎不”;
  He works hard. (= He is a hard worker.)
  He hardly does anything nowadays. (= He does very little nowadays.)
  (F) just “刚才;仅”; justly “公正地”;
  I've just seen him.
  He was justly punished.
  (G) late “迟”; lately (= recently)“最近地”;
  He went to bed late.
  I haven't seen Mr. Green lately.
  (H) Pretty (= fairly, moderately)“十分,颇”; prettily (= in a pretty way, attractively)“漂亮地”;
  The situation seems pretty hopeless.
  She was prettily dressed.


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